Aurora Factory Farm Operations Archive

Was Target’s Organic Milk Just Regular?

Saturday, September 29th, 2007

Claims that “organic” milk sold to Target and Wal-Mart was conventional highlight a dispute over dairy-farm practices.

Minneapolis Star Tribune
By Matt McKinney

Ever wonder how Target Corp. could sell its organic milk for dollars less than other stores? Turns out the milk might not have been truly organic after all.

Last month, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) said it had threatened to revoke the organic status of Aurora Organic Dairy, a Colorado farm that supplies Target and Wal-Mart, among others, with its organic milk.

The government found that from late 2003 until this spring Aurora, under retailer labels such as Target’s Archer Farms, essentially sold conventional milk slapped with an organic label. Read Full Article »

USDA Enforcement Action At Nation’s Largest Dairy Fails to Levy Fines or Yank Certification – Findings of Investigation Appear to Constitute Fraud

Thursday, September 13th, 2007

Watchdog: Organic Community “Taking the Law into Its Own Hands”

CORNUCOPIA, WI: Announcing the filing of additional legal complaints with the USDA, and threatening civil litigation, the nation’s most aggressive organic watchdog, The Cornucopia Institute, blasted the USDA for not penalizing the industry’s largest organic milk producer after government regulators found that they have perpetrated consumer fraud by violating the federal organic labeling law.

On August 29, the USDA announced that Colorado-based Aurora Organic Dairy had willfully violated 14 provisions of the regulations of Organic Food Production Act. Aurora operates a dairy processing facility in Colorado and five giant factory-farms in Texas and Colorado. The USDA investigation began after the agency was alerted to organic irregularities at Aurora’s over two years ago. Read Full Article »

Willful Violations

Friday, August 31st, 2007

On April 16, 2007, the Mark Bradley, the head of the National Organic Program, sent a letter to Marc Peperzak, the CEO of the Aurora Organic Dairy. Mr. Bradley summarized the results of the USDA’s investigation into complaints filed with the Agency by The Cornucopia Institute concerning Aurora’s organic farming practices:

    During the course of our investigation of Aurora Organic Dairy, we identified willful violations of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA), as amended (7 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.), and the regulations thereunder (7 CPR Part 205), by Aurora Organic Dairy. The violations are listed in the enclosed document, Aurora Organic Dairy, Case No. M-005-06, Violations by Aurora Organic Dairy, dated March 7, 2007.

Of the 14 separate violations detailed in the USDA’s letter to Aurora, perhaps this one is the most damning:

From December 5,2003, to the present, AOD sold, labeled and represented milk as organically produced, when such milk was not produced and handled in accordance with the National Organic Program (NOP) regulations (7 C.F.R. part 205), in willful violation of7 C.F.R. — 205.102, 205.200 and 205.400(a).

You can read the full letter here that eventually led to the enforcement action on August 29.

Update on Aurora and Trader Joe’s

Thursday, August 30th, 2007

We have verified that although some of the milk that Trader Joe’s is buying does indeed come from a factory-farm, milking thousands of cows, that particular farm is not under Aurora’s ownership. All the other brands that The Cornucopia Institute referenced (Wal-Mart, Costco, Target, Safeway, and many others) get all or some of their milk from the five industrial-scale farms that are owned by Aurora dairy.

In addition to being the nation’s largest producer of private-label organic milk (anonymous, private-label products and organics should possibly be considered an oxymoron) Aurora also markets milk under their own label, High Meadows. Read Full Article »

USDA Enforcement Hammer Falls on Nation’s Largest Organic Factory Dairy

Thursday, August 30th, 2007

USDA Requiring Aurora Organics to Reduce Dairy Herd Size and Remove Organic Label from Some Milk

At 7:20 p.m. EST, August 29, the USDA issued an emergency news release announcing that they had sent a Letter of Revocation to the Aurora Organic Dairy. In lieu of revoking Aurora’s organic certification, the Agency has instead entered into a consent agreement requiring the nation’s largest certified organic dairy to make substantial and wide-ranging changes to the livestock management practices at their operations in Texas and Colorado. (A copy of USDA’s news release is copied in full below.)

If the terms of the agreement are not met, USDA officials warn Aurora’s management that the agreement they have reached “will be withdrawn” and the Agency may “revoke the organic certification” for Aurora’s Platteville, Colo. dairy processing plant that packages private label milk for several national chains, including Wal-Mart, Costco, Target, and Safeway. The USDA also warns Aurora’s officials that their operations “will be closely monitored for compliance with the provisions of the agreement.” Although Aurora is the largest private-label organic milk supplier in the United States they also market milk under their own label, High Meadows.

Additionally, Aurora has agreed not to renew the organic certification for its Woodward, Colo. facility.

Earlier on Wednesday, August 29, management at Aurora sought to preempt the USDA announcement by issuing their own crass public relations spin on the matter. Aurora asserted that the formal legal complaints Cornucopia filed with USDA against Aurora in 2005 and 2006 were dismissed. The complaints were not dismissed. In fact, Wednesday evening Cornucopia’s Mark Kastel received a call from a high-ranking USDA official to say that the Agency had specifically rushed their official news release on the events out to the public in an effort to dispel the misinformation caused by Aurora’s factually erroneous representations.

Although we should be proud at The Cornucopia Institute that our meticulous research and well documented legal complaints have resulted in this action, and the previously announced decertification of the 10,000-head Vander Eyk dairy in California, we are still not wholly satisfied with the outcome and enforcement action taken by the USDA.

After years of delay Aurora, having expanded to five industrial scale dairies in Colorado and Texas, is still being allowed to remain in business despite being found guilty of multiple violations of organic law. These were not accidental violations — they were willful and premeditated violations of the law by a multimillion dollar business enterprise, the largest organic dairy producer in the United States.

All of the allegations that we outlined in our legal complaints are delineated in this consent agreement. The investigators at AMS compliance have obviously done their jobs well and are to be commended for their diligence. But it is the political appointees at USDA that have decided to let Aurora off somewhat easy in this matter. This is exactly what we warned about in our news release of August 14.

Major points that were detailed in the original Cornucopia legal complaints and that are also addressed in the consent agreement include:

    Aurora was not allowing their animals access to pasture
    Aurora brought in animals to their herd from a contract heifer ranch that was not certified organic
    Aurora converted animals from conventional to organic production when the regulations (because of their initial 80/20 conversion) prohibited that practice
    Aurora purchased organic feed for their Texas operation from a friend of the dairy manager who had sprayed his crops with herbicides during transition

During all of this time, Aurora was building market share, helping drive the price down for “real” organic farmers, and being a driving force behind the current surplus in the organic dairy market. They were defrauding consumers by selling milk that did not qualify to be labeled as organic.

The USDA chose not to levy any fines and Aurora is being allowed to remain in business.

It must be noted that – 205.100(c)(1) of the organic regulations states that “any operation that knowingly sells or labels a product as organic, except in accordance with the Act, shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 per violation.

This is only a partial victory in protecting the economic interests of the family scale dairy farmers we work for.

Stay tuned. We will aggressively be telling consumers, and the wholesale buyers that have been buying milk from Aurora, that they have been scammed by charlatans. Hopefully ethical businesses will discontinue their relationship with Aurora and we will see the surplus eaten away by new demand for “real” organic milk.

And now, a personal word from Mark Kastel:

I want to thank the staff of The Cornucopia Institute for their hard work over the years in pursuing our complaints against Vander Eyk, Aurora and Dean Foods/Horizon (the only factory-farm dairy operator, profiled in our complaints, that has yet to be adjudicated by the USDA). I particularly want to thank our research director, Will Fantle who is responsible for crafting our legal complaints and our legal counsel, Gary Cox, who has helped review documents and spearheaded our lawsuit against the USDA for release of related documents they had illegally withheld from the public.

I especially want to thank the many members of The Cornucopia Institute who had confidence in our work and have financially underwritten the expenses related to this campaign. It is an honor to work for the organic farmers of this country who I have so much respect and admiration for.

Mark, of course, was directly responsible for much of the onsite investigations and analysis of the farming operations and deserves huge thanks for his persistence and dedication to Cornucopia’s mission.

We will be releasing more news and analysis when it becomes available. A photo gallery of Aurora’s factory-farms can be seen here.


What follows is the text of the news release issued by USDA on this matter.

Billy Cox (202) 720-8998
Angela Harless (202) 720-4623


WASHINGTON, Aug. 29, 2007 — The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has entered into a consent agreement with Aurora Organic Dairy (Aurora) in response to a Notice of Proposed Revocation issued earlier this year alleging violations of National Organic Program (NOP) regulations. Under the consent agreement, Aurora’s Platteville, Colo., facility must meet several conditions in order to continue to operate as a certified organic dairy operation. These conditions include removing certain animals from the organic herd and ceasing to apply the organic label to certain milk. Additionally, AMS will exercise increased scrutiny over Aurora’s operations during a one-year probationary review period. If Aurora does not abide by the agreement during that time, AMS may withdraw from the agreement and could revoke the organic certification for Aurora’s Platteville, Colo., plant.

“The organic industry is booming and the National Organic Program is a high priority for USDA,” said Bruce I. Knight, under secretary for marketing and regulatory programs, “and through this consent agreement consumers can be assured that milk labeled as organic in the supermarket is indeed organic.”

Under terms of the consent agreement Aurora also must file new organic systems plans for its Platteville, Colo., and Dublin, TX, facilities. These new plans will address all of the inconsistencies between its operations and the NOP regulations identified in the Notice of Proposed Revocation.

Major adjustments required at Aurora’s Platteville, Colo., facility include:

      1) providing daily access to pasture during the growing season,


      acknowledging that lactation is not a reason to deny access to pasture;


      2) reducing the number of cows to a level consistent with available pasture with agreed maximum stocking densities;


      3) eliminating improperly transitioned cows from its herd and not marketing those cows’ milk as organic; and


    4) agreeing to use the more stringent transition process in the NOP regulations for animals added to its dairy herd.

Aurora also agreed not to renew the organic certification for its Woodward, Colo., facility. Additionally, Aurora agreed to enter into written agreements with suppliers of animals for its Dublin, Texas facility that verify the certification of those suppliers and the proper transitioning to the organic status of those animals.

AMS initiated its investigation of Aurora based upon a complaint alleging insufficient pasture for its animals. In investigating this complaint, AMS investigators also uncovered the improper transitioning of animals and a failure to maintain adequate records.

Aurora’s Platteville, Colo. and Dublin, Texas plants will be closely monitored for compliance with the provisions of the agreement. If AMS finds the terms of the consent agreement are not being met, then the agreement will be withdrawn and AMS could revoke the organic certification for Aurora’s Platteville, Colo., plant.

As a result of the investigation, Aurora’s certifying agent, the Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA), agreed earlier this year to make several changes in its operation, including attending increased NOP training and hiring additional personnel.

Congress passed the Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990. The OFPA required the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to develop national standards for organically produced agricultural products to assure consumers that agricultural products marketed as organic meet consistent, uniform standards. The OFPA and the National Organic Program (NOP) regulations require that agricultural products labeled as organic originate from farms or handling operations certified by a State or private entity that has been accredited by USDA.

The NOP is a marketing program housed within the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. Neither the OFPA nor the NOP regulations address food safety or nutrition. Additional information about this program is available on the National Organic Program Web site at